Chevraux Home

History

The house profiled below was built in 1916 by George Hauser at the request of Jack Williams. The family had been living in a log house on a quarter of land one mile west of the property this house currently stands on. Jack Williams also had Jack Croskery move the barn that stood on that quarter to the West to this new homestead; a team of thirty-two horses was required to pull the building across the prairie. Jack and his wife, Marsella, lived here until 1943/44 when they moved to Victoria, British Columbia. The pair had three daughters: Vivian May (Johnston), Mary Katherine (Pope), and Ruth Irene (James).

The house follows a simple prairie school Four Square design. It is two-and-a-half stories with a bellcast hip roof and a triangular dormer. The house has contrasting horizontal trim boards at the foundation between the first and the second level. It also has fishscale and diamond patterned shingles on the western dormer.

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This frame shows the western side and southern of the house and the western dormer.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the house and part of the southern side.

In 1963, Stan and Sharleen Chevraux purchased this property from Everett and Marion Chevraux. Stan and Sharleen were young and newly married in 1962; they thought that they would be in debt forever because of their purchase. Everett and Marion had put plumbing and electricity put in the house when they lived there, but, while renovating the house, it was discovered later that pipes had been put in prior to this. Black iron pipes had been installed in the house when it was built but water was never run through them.

Stan and Sharleen had the kitchen widened and renovated a few years after they moved in. The old kitchen was quite small and so the new kitchen took space from and destroyed an old pantry and a dumbwaiter. Before these renovations, the kitchen had a small wood burning stove and later a small electric stove. The new kitchen has wood builtin cabinets and modern appliances. The only other changes Stan and Sharleen made to the original structure inside he house was covering up two doors that used to come off the first parlor of the house towards the east.

When the pair arrived, they sanded the fireplace and wooden trim throughout the living room, which had been painted white by Everett and Marion, to restore it back to its original state. The home has wooden beamed ceilings, wood trim, wainscoting, and builtin cabinetry throughout. The house still has its original boiler for heating the home; the boiler was retrofitted to burn propane in the late 1960s. Before this, coal was hauled from Forestburg, Alberta to heat the house.

As for the outside of the house, when Stan and Sharleen arrived they insulated the house with spray foam insulation; the house never had any insulation before. While this job was being completed, Stan took it upon himself to ensure that enough foam was being used. He drilled a few holes into the side of the house to check that foam had thoroughly coated the inside of the walls. Sharleen jokes that Stan didn’t trust the young guys putting the foam in enough, but the job has held up extremely well as both Stan and Sharleen say that the home is very warm in winter. In the 1990s Stan and Sharleen had a modern sun room added to the northern side of the house, off of the original covered veranda on the western side of the house. They have shingled the house three times since the beginning of their stay; that job has always been completed by the same roofer. They painted the house once and have never strayed from its original colours.

Stan and Sharleen believe that the biggest reason their 1918 abode has fared so well is because it has never sat vacant. They feel incredibly lucky to live in a home with so much character and life.

Chevraux, Stanley and Sharleen. Personal communication. 7 Aug. 2018.

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This frame shows the northern side of the house.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the house.

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This frame shows the southern side of the house.

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This frame shows the southern side and western side of the house.

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This frame shows the western side of the house.

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This frame shows the molding inside the parlor of the house.

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This frame shows the fireplace inside the living room of the house.

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This frame shows one of two oil lamps inside the living room.

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This frame shows a sampler that was finished in 1807 by Mary Ann Evison (age 12), Sharleen Chevraux’s great-great-great-grandmother. Interestingly enough, Sharleen runs CraftyCreations quilting shop in Killam today.

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This bedroom suite was Stanley Chevraux’s grandparents. It was built in 1898 and the family brought it up from the United States with them to Killam.

Location

52.775302, -111.937787                                       SW 11-44-14 W4

Characteristics

House Condition: Good

Construction Date: 1918

Features: No names or dates

Roof Shape: Bellcast hip roof with triangular roof dormer

Paint: Yellow

Decorations: Fishscale and diamond patterned shingles on dormer, wooden column with brick pedestal outside covered veranda.

Roof Covering: Asphalt shingles

Siding: Wooden clapboard with contrasting corner boards,

Foundation: Cement

Additional History on the Property

Stanley and Sharleen Chevraux Family History

 

 

Chevraux, Sharleen. “Stanley and Sharleen Chevraux Family” Pleasant Country: Killam             and District 1903-1993. 1st ed. Killam: Killam Historical Society, 1993. Print.

J.J. (Jack) and Marsella Williams Family History

 

 

James, Debbie L. “J.J. (Jack) and Marsella Williams Family” Pleasant Country: Killam                 and District 1903-1993. 1st ed. Killam: Killam Historical Society, 1993. Print.

Lauback/Lunty

History

Clarence Lunty bought this quarter section from David P. Lauback. He had previously purchased the quarter to the North of it in the spring of 1906 and married his wife, Eva Pearl Sheppard, on December 18th, 1911. Sometime before their first child was born on February 20, 1913, they had taken up residence on this quarter section profiled below. Their first daughter, Berna Alberta, got sick early in her life and died September 27th, 1913 in Bawlf Hospital, the same place she had come into the world. Berna was the only child of ten children to be born in a hospital. These ten children were: Berna, Velma, Iris, Vernon, Wayne (who would marry Edith Pottage), Glenn, Patricia, Lindy, Garth, and Wallace. The rest of the family were born on this quarter section profiled below with a doctor and/or a midwife.Often, the doctor was Dr. L.M. Rogers of Forestburg; which had just sprung into existence following the 1915 completion of the railway from Camrose to Alliance. Dr. Rogers and his wife, Estelle C. Gunston, had three children in Forestburg; one of these children was Jeanne Estelle Lougheed or Mrs. Peter Lougheed. In 1916, the Lunty family would move to a newly built house positioned on the southern end of the same quarter.

Pearl Lunty would die April 30, 1954 at the age of sixty-one and in 1962 Clarence Lunty would move off the farm after forty-some years of living there. The quarter was transferred that same year to son, Glenn Lunty, who married Dorthy Vincett of Galahad in 1948. Clarence Lunty died January 23rd, 1973 at the age of ninety-one.

Glenn Lunty was born in December 1922 under the attendance of Dr. L.M. Rogers. Glenn would often farm in the summer and work in the nearby Forestburg coal mines in the winter. Glenn and Dorthy Lunty lived a ways away on the Billy Phipps Estate until 1951 when they had the house moved to this property by Kevin Lattery. Glenn and Dorthy moved into the larger house on the farm in 1964; this house still stands today. Glenn and Dorthy would raise eight children: Vivian, Gordon, Charlotte, Lois, Harvey, Jeanette, John, and Christine.

The barn was built in 1962/63 by a UFA barn crew from Camrose; the men on the crew were from Kingmen. The barn replaced an old original gable-roofed barn in the same place in the yard. That old barn was a one story building; a low cattle shed with no loft. This new arched-roofed barn was built and used as a dairy. Glenn Lunty and Vivan Lopetinsky (nee Lunty), the eldest child, painted the barn; Dorthy refused to let the barn be red and so they painted it white. Vivan remembers suffering a terrible heatstroke after spending a day painting the barn with her Dad, the rest of the kids were too young to help.

Calves were kept in a shed in the same yard until they got to be too big and were then moved to this barn and its surrounding fenced pasture.

Glenn and Dorthy Lunty stopped milking in 1995 but used the barn until 2000 when they left the property. The barn was only ever used for dairy cows and cattle, no horses. The property is currently owned by Robert and Lois (nee Lunty) Ponto.

Herle, Jeanette. Personal communication. 13 Aug. 2018.


I encourage you to read more on this family in Velma Carmichael’s (nee Lunty) colourful account found below in Golden Echoes: A History of Galahad and District and Yesterday and Years Ago: A History of Forestburg and District.

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This frame shows the southern face of the barn.

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This frame shows the southern face and eastern side of the barn.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the barn.

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This frame shows the northern face of the barn.

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This frame shows the northern face and the western side of the barn.

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This frame shows the western side of the barn.

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This frame shows the western set of milking stalls inside the barn.

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This frame shows the north-south walkway inside the barn.

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This frame shows the eastern set of box stalls inside the barn.

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This frame shows the separator room inside the south-eastern corner of the barn.

Location

52.493702, -112.108449                                       SW 04-41-15 W4

Characteristics

Barn Condition: Good

Construction Date: 1962/63

Features: Light above southern doorway

Roof Shape: Arched

Paint: White

Decorations: No names or dates

Roof Covering: Metal

Siding: Wooden clapboard with corner boards

Foundation: Cement

Additional History on the Property

Clarence Lunty Family

Carmichael, Velma. “Clarence Lunty Family.” Golden Echoes: A History of                                 Galahad and District. 1st ed. Galahad: Galahad Historical Society, 1980. Print.

Clarence Lunty Story

Carmichael, Velma. “Clarence Lunty Story..” Yesterday and Years Ago: A History of                    Forestburg and District. 1st ed. Forestburg: Forestburg and District Historical Book         Committee, 1983. Print.

Lauback/Lunty

History

Clarence Lunty bought this quarter section from David P. Lauback. He had previously purchased the quarter to the North of it in the spring of 1906 and married his wife, Eva Pearl Sheppard, on December 18th, 1911. Sometime before their first child was born on February 20, 1913, they had taken up residence on this quarter section profiled below. Their first daughter, Berna Alberta, got sick early in her life and died September 27th, 1913 in Bawlf Hospital, the same place she had come into the world. Berna was the only child of ten children to be born in a hospital. These ten children were: Berna, Velma, Iris, Vernon, Wayne (who would marry Edith Pottage), Glenn, Patricia, Lindy, Garth, and Wallace. The rest of the family were born on this quarter section profiled below with a doctor and/or a midwife. Often, the doctor was Dr. L.M. Rogers of Forestburg; which had just sprung into existence following the 1915 completion of the railway from Camrose to Alliance. Dr. Rogers and his wife, Estelle C. Gunston, had three children in Forestburg; one of these children was Jeanne Estelle Lougheed or Mrs. Peter Lougheed.

In 1916, the Lunty family would move to a newly built house positioned on the southern end of the same quarter. Clarence Lunty and the boys of the family built the cordwood shed, pictured below, to the East of the family’s house. It is believed that mud from the Battle River or a nearby slough was used as mortar to hold the cordwood logs together; they also made a mud plaster, mixed with straw and manure, to cover the walls inside the shed. The shed was used for storage and the Lunty children would often play in its’ loft. It was always cold inside the shed in the summertime and so the shed was also used as a reprieve from the summer heat. The shed was often also used for calves until they got to be too big and were moved to the barn and its surrounding pasture in the same yard. In later years, but before cars got to be too large, the shed was also used as a car garage.

Pearl Lunty would die April 30, 1954 at the age of sixty-one and in 1962 Clarence Lunty would move off the farm after forty-some years of living there. The quarter was transferred that same year to Glenn Lunty, who married Dorthy Vincett of Galahad in 1948. Clarence Lunty would die January 23rd, 1973 at the age of ninety-one.

Glenn was born in December 1922 under the attendance of Dr. L.M. Rogers. Glenn would often farm in the summer and work in the nearby Forestburg coal mines in the winter. Glenn and Dorthy Lunty lived a ways away on the Billy Phipps Estate until 1951 when they had the house moved to this property by Kevin Lattery. Glenn and Dorthy moved into the larger house on the farm in 1964; this house still stands today. Glenn and Dorthy would raise eight children: Vivian, Gordon, Charlotte, Lois, Harvey, Jeanette, John, and Christine.

Glenn Lunty moved off this property in 2000 and the buildings have sat vacant since. The property is currently owned by Robert and Lois (nee Lunty) Ponto.

Herle, Jeanette. Personal communication. 13 Aug. 2018.


I encourage you to read more on this family in Velma Carmichael’s (nee Lunty) colourful account found below in Golden Echoes: A History of Galahad and District and Yesterday and Years Ago: A History of Forestburg and District.

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This frame shows the southern side of the garage.

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This frame shows the southern side and the western face of the garage.

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This frame shows more of the western face of the garage.

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This frame is a closeup of the western wall of the garage. Note the cord wood construction. Additionally, this face of the garage has square timbers that run perpendicular to each layer of stacked cord wood.

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This frame shows the western face and northern side of the garage.

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This frame shows the northern side of the garage. Note that this side is all cordwood construction with no timber braces running perpendicular to the cordwood layers. The only other place where timbers are used in the opposite direction of the cordwood is in the corners of the structure.

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This frame shows the eastern face and southern side of the garage. Note the corner bracing used in the south-eastern corner and the corner boards that cover them.

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This frame shows the collapsing eastern wall.

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This frame is a closeup of the eastern wall. Note the mud and clay that was used as mortar in the construction of the building.

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This frame shows the inside of the garage and where the chimney used to exit the building. Note the burn marks on the beams above the stack. The stove burnt coal and led to periodic burns in the rafters because the chimney was so hot.

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This frame shows the inside of the garage. The door in the background of this frame is the western door.

Location

52.493251, -112.108151                                       SW 04-41-15 W4

Characteristics

Garage Condition: Poor

Construction Date: Mid 1930s

Features: Cordwood construtcion

Roof Shape: Gable

Paint: None

Decorations: None

Roof Covering: Wooden shingles

Siding: Cordwood with corner boards and bracing

Foundation: Cement, mud

Additional History on the Property

Clarence Lunty Family

Carmichael, Velma. “Clarence Lunty Family.” Golden Echoes: A History of                                 Galahad and District. 1st ed. Galahad: Galahad Historical Society, 1980. Print.

Clarence Lunty Story

Carmichael, Velma. “Clarence Lunty Story..” Yesterday and Years Ago: A History of                    Forestburg and District. 1st ed. Forestburg: Forestburg and District Historical Book         Committee, 1983. Print.

Coldstream Barn/George

History

The Coldstream Barn, also known as the George’s Barn, is iconic to many within Killam and the surrounding area. The quarter section that the barn sits on was acquired by Leonard and Alexander George in May 1920 from W.E. Larson. The pair had come to Killam, Alberta in 1913 from Walla Walla, Washington.

The two George brothers farmed together until 1928 when they went their separate ways. When the operation was split, Lenard got this quarter section of land.  The barn was constructed in 1925 by Gus Lee in order to accommodate the horses used in the daily farm operations. In time, as many as sixty horses were harnessed daily for field work; eight horses would be hooked to each plough and would have to be switched out for fresh horses often. It was said that crews of First Nations peoples helped the Georges clear brush in both the summer and winter to expand the boundaries of this farm. The George’s cropping operation was quite sizable in its day. Threshing was done with a Case tractor and a crew of fourteen men. Many of these men stayed in the farmyard in the loft of a bunkhouse.

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The barn has a Gothic-arched roof; or a rainbow arch roof and a hay hood; it used to have two wooden cupolas with flared gable roofs. Each sliding door on the two faces of the barn and the one hayloft door have white “X” designs. The barn has six stalls on each side; enough for twelve horses on each side and twenty-four horses in total. The hay loft uses nailed

trusses to create a large hayloft free of the usual interior braces. This allowed for greater storage of hay for the draft horses; additionally, two enclosed rooms on the main floor at the end of the stalls held grain as a high-energy snack for the working beasts.

The George family built a new Easton house in 1928; complete with four bedrooms upstairs and a lovely main floor with a large living room and kitchen. Lloyd George was born on December 22, 1928; he would take over farming on this property after Leonard George. After a time, tractors came to the farm and horses were not needed in such quantity anymore. The barn sat mostly vacant, save a few pigs and/or cows, until 1947 when Lloyd George had a new idea.

In 1947, the George family had the barn’s loft remodeled for use as a dance hall and had stairs installed on the eastern and western faces of the barn. The first dance was held on July, 16, 1947. The music that evening was provided by Charlie Merta’s Western Four. Leonard George organized the dances which were held between mid May to October, depending on the weather. Admission was 50 cents for ladies and $1.00 for men. It gave the attendee three and a half hours of dance time; the dances ran from 10:00 pm to 2:30 am with one hour break at midnight. The barn was decorated with streamers and other party supplies, lights were hung above the dance floor, and a strict rule of no loitering on the dance floor was enforced. Anyone who crossed the red line on the floor nearby the western entryway had to be dancing. The local church’s woman’s organization, the St. Peter’s Roman Catholic Church Catholic Women’s League, supplied food to the attendees for a small fee to the organizer, but included in the price of entry.

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An original advertisement for the Coldstream Barn barn dances.

A number of local musicians provided the music for the dances including the Blue Jays, Ruby Keehn, the Bennetts, Western Four, and Charlie Merta. Charlie Merta was the uncle of Joyce Niehaus, who also played at the Coldstream Barn in another orchestra. She began playing there in the tail-end of the 1948 dance season on a contract that let them play every second weekend and got $6.00 a dance.

Joyce has many fond memories of the Coldstream Barn and often smiles when she thinks of it; “It was a joyous place,” she says. She would meet Lloyd George while at one of the Coldstream Barn dances and the pair would marry on October 17th, 1951. They had planned to have their wedding dance in the barn’s loft but a heavy snowstorm came through the day before and the dance had to be moved to Killam as the barn was too cold.

1956, Lloyd and Joyce moved to the farmyard and lived there until 1982, when they built a new house across the road. Lloyd and Joyce kept a few pigs and milk cows in the barn while they lived there but also used the main floor as a granary for a while. The house was rented out in the years that followed.

In 1989, Lloyd and Joyce George’s son; Bob, would begin living in the farm yard with his wife, Karen. Bob and Karen George have mostly used the barn for storage and recreation; when their children were younger they would often play ball hockey or other games in the barn’s loft. Bob and Karen would remove the stairs from the western face of the barn as they had become unsafe for use.

Inside the loft of the barn, a stage area, a turnstile, and signage still remain, evidence of its use as a dance hall. The barn functioned as a dance hall until 1955. It was designated a Municipal Historic Resource on July 17, 2013.

George, Karen. Personal communication. 29 Aug. 2018.

George, Joyce. Personal communication. 31 Aug. 2018.

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This frame shows the southern side and western face of the barn.

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This frame shows the western face of the barn.

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This frame shows the western face and northern side of the barn.

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This frame shows the northern side and western face of the barn.

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This frame shows the eastern face and southern side of the barn. Note the partially collapsed staircase.

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This frame is a closeup of the staircase on the eastern face of the barn. The staircase was used as an exit and as the smoking pit.

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This frame shows the southern side of the barn.

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This frame shows the southern side and western face of the barn.

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This frame is a closeup of the hay hood, hay track, and hay door on the barn’s western face.

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This frame is a closeup of the southern door on the western face of the barn.

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This frame shows the entry door to the barn’s loft on the western side of the barn.

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This frame shows the entryway, complete with turnstile and ticket counter.

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This frame is a closeup of the turnstile.

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This frame is a closeup of the ticket window.

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This frame is a closeup of the price list.

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This frame is a closeup of the “EXIT” sign above the main entrance.

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This frame shows the entryway from the eastern end of the barn’s loft.

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This frame shows a builtin table in the south-western corner of the barn. This table was used for food brought to the dances.

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This frame shows a red line that was painted on the loft floor. This line runs north-south just off the western entryway. If you crossed over to the left (the eastern side of the barn) you had to be dancing!

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This frame shows one of the fire extinguishers in the loft of the barn.

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This frame shows another style of fire extinguisher that is in the loft of the barn.

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This frame shows one of the support posts for the barn’s roof.

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This frame shows one of the arched trusses on the northern half of the barn. The face in the background of this frame is the barn’s eastern face.

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This frame shows another arched truss in the loft; it is one of the trusses on the northern side of the barn.

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This frame shows more of the western face of the barn.

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This frame shows the backside of the loft door on the western face of the barn.

Location:

52.720399, -111.936942                                                       NW 23-43-14 W4

Characteristics

Barn Condition: Fair

Construction Date: 1925

Features: Used to have two wooden cupolas, hay hood, carrier, and track

Roof Shape: Arched

Paint: Red with white trim

Decorations: White cross-shaped braces on doors

Roof Covering: Wooden shingles

Siding: Wooden clapboard

Foundation: Cement

Additional History of the Property

The George Brothers

“The George Brothers.” Pleasant Country: Killam and District 1903-1993. 1st ed. Killam:                Killam Historical Society, 1993. Print.

Merna United Church

 History

The first church services in the community of Merna were held in Mr. and Mrs. Cox’s sod house in 1906; the minister was Reverend Finley. Mr. Kirk, a student minister, took over worship services after Reverend Finley and held the services in many different homes in the area. The Marion A. and Myrtle Cox had a daughter, Bessie, who would marry Steve Pottage and go onto write the book, “As the Wheel Turns: A History of Merna and District”.

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The present church on this property, pictured below, was built in 1907 by the Presbyterians and was opened for worship by Reverend Miller. The church was dedicated Sunday July 29th, 1908 with services by Reverend J. Thors; the minister at that time was Reverend J. McKay.

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Sedgewick Sentinel July 16, 1908.

The church was built mostly by Mr. George Jackman but with the help of the entire Merna community; Jackman also built the pews for the church. The Merna United Church is a one-and-a-half story gable roofed building with an engaged tower atop a gable roofed main entrance. It is clad with clapboard siding and has contrasting coloured corner boards. When the church was built, the half story in the nave was open but this was enclosed later in its life. The church is vernacular in design. This is evident in the square composite tower and belfry and the local expression of Gothic Revival in the pointed arch windows in the nave. There is a single stained-glass transom window above the southern doorway; the wooden frame around this was built by Lloyd O’Reilly.

The property is significant for not only the church but also for the surrounding cemetery. One of the earliest graves in the cemetery belongs to Mary Winfred Stewart (1871-1905).

Steve Pottage was the church’s first organist. At that time, the congregation was made up of families including the: Bruces, Camerons, Colvins, Cox’s, Halls, Jackmans, Johnsons, Kendricks, McLennans, McLeods, McPhersons, O’Reillys, Peacocks, Pottages, Reids, Robertsons, Romboughs, Smiths, Stewarts, Stothards, and Veeders.

In April 1922, a local union of the Presebyterian and the Methodist congregations was created with Reverend D. Pomeroy as the minister of all involved. In 1925, the general union of churches was consummated and the Merna Church passed into the union along with the Alliance congregation.

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Merna church before Sunday School room addition and tower installation.

In 1956, a Sunday School room was added to the South side of the building. This was made possible by the donation of time and money by members within the community and outside of it. Before this, it was not uncommon for Sunday School to be held out in cars in the parking lot or on the grass in the summertime.

There was no heating or electricity in the church for a long time. After a while, a wood burning stove was put into the church near the southern entrance and the guestbook pulpit. This stove had a large pipe that went from it to the chimney in the north-western corner of the church, where the current chimney is. This stove was later replaced by an oil stove; however, today neither are present and so the church has no heating. Currently, electricity does not run into the church but it used to; additionally, a generator can be hooked up outside to power the lights inside if need be.

In December 1963, Merna Church lost Mr. J.E. Nichol due to illness and then became associated with the Sedgewick-Lougheed Charge with services being conducted by Reverend Don Lewis. On June 30, 1964, a new three-point Charge of Sedgewick, Lougheed, and Merna was formed by action of the Coronation Presbyterian Church.

In 1970, the bell tower was added to the church’s northern side. It was left open for a few years and then was enclosed late in the 1970s.

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Merna United Church with bell installed in tower.

In June 1982, a seventy-fifth anniversary was held for the church with the last regular service in the church being held in December of that year. From that time on, the church has held a service only once a year in the summer. These have been presided over by Reverend Randy Hedeman; including the ninetieth anniversary in 1982 and the one-hundredth anniversary in 2007.

The Merna Church and the cemetery are currently under the care of the Merna Cemetery Maintenance Society. This group’s most recent work on the church was in 2015 when it was repainted and the shingles were replaced.  When the church had to be re-shingled a few years ago, the Merna Cemetery Maintenance Society sent letters out to the families of everyone buried in the cemetery. From the donations given as a result, the got was completed. The church is currently maintained by members of the community, including current Secretary-Treasurer Debbie Leslie (since 2014).

War Veterans buried in the Merna United Church Cemetery include: Bruce Smith (RCAF), Donald H. McLeod (RCAF Flight Sergeant), James Wetmore, Richard Ball (CECEF WWI), Stan Sheldrake (L41079 Pte RCAMC), Alred A. Baker (WWI), James Baker, Robert McLeod (RCA), and Wayne Lunty (RCA WWII).


When preparing this story for the database, I spoke with Edith Lunty (nee Pottage and Bessie Cox’s daughter) and Doreen Eldey (VanDerwark). Interestingly, Doreen told me of how her grandmother, Margaret Walsh, taught Edith’s mother, Bessie Cox, when she was young in Park Rapids, Minnesota, USA. Both Bessie and Edith would become teachers later in their lives and teach in Merna and surrounding area.

Teacher Story

Note the blue “x’s” in the photo. Margaret Walsh (later VanDerwark after married); teacher in back-left. Bessie Cox (later Pottage after married); girl in front-right, age five. Photo taken in Minnesota in 1904 or so before the Cox family left Minnesota for Merna District.

The Merna District was, and still is, a tight-knit community. There even used to be a Kindergarten to Grade Nine school in the area. On June 30th, 1969, the Merna School closed down; the bell would be moved to the church and be put in the tower, but other solutions could not so easily be found. The closing of the school separated friends and family that had been together since they were young. One such person was twelve-year-old Ian Eckstrand who penned the following poem.

Eckstrand Poem

Taken from “As the Wheel Turns: A History of Merna and District.”

Leslie, Debbie. Personal communication. 13 Aug. 2018.

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This frame shows the south-western side of the Merna Cemetery.

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This frame shows the western edge of the cemetery and the church.

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This frame shows the southern side of the church. The 1956 addition/Sunday School room is visible.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the church. Note the pointed arch windows in the nave.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the church and the Merna cemetery sign.

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This frame shows the Merna cemetery sign on the eastern side of the church’s grounds.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the church and part of the southern face.

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This frame shows the southern face of the church.

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This frame shows the inscription in the end of the sidewalk coming away from the southern door of the church.

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This frame shows the southern face and western side of the church.

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This frame shows the northern and eastern walls inside the church. The doorway in the left aspect of this frame goes into the Sunday School room addition.

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This frame shows more of the eastern side of the church and focuses more on the wooden pews. These pews are the original pews built by George Jackman.

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This frame shows the guestbook in the southern end of the nave.

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This frame shows the south-western wall inside the nave. The church’s congregation have put up photos of past members and created a collage.

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This frame is a closeup of a certificate recognizing past Secretary-Treasurers of the church. These individuals were largely involved with keeping the church grounds tidy and completing repairs to the church.

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This frame shows the western entrance to the Sunday School room.

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This frame shows the eastern entrance to the Sunday School room. There used to be cloth curtains hanging from the roof in this room to separate the different Sunday School classes.

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This frame shows one of the only built-in features in the Sunday School room.

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This frame shows a bouquet of cloth flowers left in the church by one of the past church attendees. These flowers are many years old and used to sit in front of the pulpit inside the nave. They must have been a pleasant sight in the middle of winter.

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This frame shows the single stained-glass transom window above the main entrance to the church.

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Present and past Merna Church signs. The new sign is currently nailed on the southern side of the bell tower.

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Graves for Carl P. Colvin and Mary Colvin

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Tombstone for Archibald Brown.

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Oak tree in the south-western corner of the property.

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The Original Cemetery Plot Record Book

 

Location

52.579831, -111.683654                                       SW 04-42-12 W4

Characteristics

Church Condition: Good

Construction Date: 1907

Features: Pointed arch windows in the nave, single stained-glass transom window above main entrance, cemetery, engaged tower atop a gable roofed entrance

Roof Shape: Gable, one-and-a-half story

Paint: White with green trim

Decorations: “Merna United Church and Cemetery Built 1907” sign on southern face of bell tower

Roof Covering: Asphalt shingles

Siding: Wooden clapboard with contrasting coloured corner boards

Foundation: Cement

ADDITIONAL HISTORY ON THE PROPERTY

WRITTEN HISTORY ON THE CHURCH

Straw Stack Hill/Iron Creek Hill – Paterson

History

In 1910, Alfred Paterson Sr., originally of Scotland, purchased the property that the peak of Straw Stack or Iron Creek Hill is located on. He would own it until 1951 when his son, Alfred Patesron Jr., would take over the farm.

Alfred Sr. homesteaded around the hill beginning in 1907 on a quarter to the south-west. At this time, the land was mostly open prairie and roads were just trails in the sod. He remembered that, in the early days, groups of First Nations peoples would camp to the south of him in the summertime nearby the creek (Iron Creek). He would sometimes work with them or hire them to work with him. It was amazing to see contrasting cultures and ways of life working side-by-side for a time. In 2001, the property was passed onto Alfred Jr.’s son, Bill, and his wife, Yvonne. Bill and Yvonne had lived nearby for many years by that time.  Yvonne was very interested in the hill as local word had it that a meteorite fell on it sometime before written word could account for it. Tales of it are not certain and we may never really know the correct location of where the meteorite, Manitou Asinîy fell. However, in 2013, the property that majority of the hill is located on was Designated a Municipal Historic Resource.

The hill is a large rounded outcrop at approximately 150 meters in length and almost the same size in width. The hill has both open prairie spaces and tree cover. It is visible from all directions surrounding it and is the highest point of land for many miles around.


The earliest known reference to this hill was by Alexander Henry in 1810. It was called “Iron Creek Hill” as there was once an iron meteorite there. The hill was also called “Iron Creek Hill” by missionary John McDougall in his 1911 book, “In the Days of the Red River Rebellion.” In 1866, Mr. David McDougall, at the request of his father; the Methodist Reverend George McDougall, brought into the Victoria Mission a mass of meteoric iron via the Red River cart trail. After the stone was removed famine as disease soon followed; believed to be the result of moving the stone. The meteorite was thought to weigh 386 lbs (later changed to 320 lbs) and comprised of 91.33% iron, 8.83% nickel, and 0.49% cobalt with a specific gravity of 7.784 . It is termed an octahedrite because of its nickel concentration. The meteorite is roughly triangular in shape but is broader that it is thick. Its surface is rounded and pitted in appearance.

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Photograph of Manitou Asinîy. Image courtesy of the Royal Alberta Museum.

In 1886, the stone was moved to Victoria University, Cobourg, Ontario for a short while. It was studied there until 1892 after Victoria University moved to Toronto to federate with the University of Toronto. The meteorite was then transferred to the Royal Ontario Museum. It is now currently at the Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton, Alberta after being moved there on long-term loan for a display on Albertan meteorites in 1973. Since 2001, that loan has been made permanent and the Royal Alberta Museum now has guardianship of the stone.

It is believed that observers of the meteorite in its original location brought offerings to the site where it laid. The meteorite was greatly revered by First Nations peoples in the area. Some believe that the markings on the outer surface of the meteorite form the outline of a face, that the stone attracted lightning, and that it had grown in size since they first saw it.

Once the region was homesteaded, the hill the meteorite used to sit on started to be known as “Straw Stack Hill” because it resembled a stack of straw at harvest time. In 1952, roadwork being done over the hill uncovered the remains of a young adult buried on the hill. A bulldozer digging out gravel unearthed them. The individual was believed to have been young as nearly all the teeth were present and in good condition. The grave was thought to be that of a First Nations person because the grave lacked any sort of marker and there were no records of any homesteaders being buried there. Excavations ceased, the remains were reburied, and a wooden marker was supposedly placed at the west end of the grave.

In 2017, a group of local First Nations peoples came to visit the hill. They were part of a ceremony which gathered materials for the new exhibit for Manitou Aisnley at the Royal Alberta Museum.

Paterson, Yvonne. Personal communication. 30 Jul. 2018.

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This frame shows the southern side of the hill.

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This frame shows the south-western side of the hill.

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This frame shows the old road that used to go around the hill before the new road was put in through the hill.

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This frame shows the excavation that took place while constructing the slope on the easement.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the hill taken from the top of the slope. Gravel was removed from this face for construction of the road through the hill.

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This frame shows the hills to the south-east of Straw Stack Hill. This is where soil was removed for use by the Royal Alberta Museum.

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This frame shows a pile of rocks over the believed grave site of the First Nations chief buried on the hill.

Characteristics

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Additional History on the Property

Canada’s Iron Creek Meteorite

Spratt, Christopher E. “Canada’s iron creek meteorite.” Journal of the Royal                                      Astronomical Society of Canada, vol. 83, no. 2, 1989, pp. 81-91.

A Meteorite from the Northwest

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Coleman, Arthur Philemon. “A meteorite from the northwest.” Transactions of                             the Royal Society of Canada, vol. 4, sec. 3, 1886, pp. 97.

Stars Fall Over Canada

Millman, Peter M. and McKinley, D.W.R. “Stars fall over Canada.” Royal Astronomical                  Society of Canada Journal, vol. 61, no. 5, 1957, pp. 277-279

Article From Local Paper

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2001 Indian Place Names of the West

2001 Indian Place Names of the West - Iron Creek2001 Indian Place Names of the West - Iron Stone Hill

Fromhold, Joachim. 2001 Indian Place Names of the West – Part 1. 1st ed. Blackfalls:                   Lulu, 2010. Print

Letter From Allen Ronaghan to Council

The Iron Creek Meteorite

Ronaghan, Allen. “The Iron Creek Meteorite.” Alberta Historical Review, vol. 21,                         no. 3, 1973, pp. 10-12.

Hiesler Area Mines

History

There were many family owned and operated coal mines in the Heisler area of Alberta during the early part of the 20th century. These mines were underground and, for the majority of their use, mostly dug by hand. Each mine had a tipple, a few wooden coal cars, and an assortment of other mining tools. As time went on, many mines purchased electric-powered mining equipment to help with the undercutting process. All of the following mines used the room and pillar mining technique.

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This frame shows one of the typical old coal cars that scatter these sites.


Komperdo Mine

Sebastian and Nora Komperdo bought this mine in 1946 from John Sank with Sebastian’s four brothers and a father-in-law. They were Sebastian, Joe, Fred, and John Komperdo and Steve Tury (Fred’s father-in-law). They came from the Crowsnest Pass area of Alberta. The Riverside Coal Mine, as it was known, was given its name by George H. Enders, the owner of the mine before Sank.

This mine was first active in 1915 under Charles F. Martin’s care until 1922, as Mine Number “0615”. Enders purchased the mine after that and ran it until 1926, as Mine Number “0615/A” when Sank took over. Sank ran the mine until 1941, as Mine Number “0615/B”, at which point the Alberta Energy Regulator‘s Operating and Abandoned Coal Mines in Alberta documentation stops for that mine on that section of land; however, there is a mine with the same mine number nearby. The Alberta Energy Regulator’s list says that Komperdos operated Mine Number “0615/C” from 1943 until 1952.

Nora Komperdo’s recount in the Heilser history book states that her family’s mine operated from October 1946 until June 1952. Coal was mined underground by machine cutting and blasting followed by loading coal into mine carts for removal to the surface. Two horses were used to bring the carts to the surface. From there, the coal was hoisted up and over tipple into separate bins. It could then be loaded into farmer’s carts and trucks or hauled to Heisler by truck to be loaded into box-cars. This coal was not only used locally but also shipped as far North as Dawson Creek, British Columbia (~790 km) and as far East as Sarina, Ontario (~3,000 km).

This mine employed an average of twenty-five men while it was operated by the Komperdos. Many of these men lived in the work camp or on nearby homesteads. Many of the children went to the Greenock School (see “Additional History” Section).

After the mine closed, Sebastian and Nora Komperdo moved to Killam, Alberta. They had two daughters: Doreen (Mrs. Francis Petty of Peers, Alberta) and Virginia (Mrs. Kevin Hynes of Beaumont, Alberta). Joe Komperdo and his wife Renee moved to Killam as well. They had three children: Joyce (Mrs. Don Allers of Fawcett, Alberta), Joe of Camrose, and Brian of Lougheed. Fred and Pauline Komperdo moved to Daylsand and then to Barrhead, Alberta. They had three children: Edward of Cassier, British Columbia, Mary of Brooks, Alberta, and Loren of Calgary, Alberta. John and Cecilia Komperdo moved to Lundbreck, Alberta. They had three daughters: Geraldine (Mrs. Brian Huisman of Brooks, Alberta), Joan (Mrs. Mike Zezel of Robb, Alberta), and Carol. Steve Tury and his wife lived in Daysland. They had two children: Steve of Daysland and Pauline (Mrs. Fred Komperdo of Barrhead, Alberta).

No Present Day Photos of Mine

Komperdo Mine

Komperdo, Nora. “Komperdo, Sebastian and Nora” Wagon Trails in the Sod: A History of            Heisler and Area. 1st ed. Heisler: Heisler Historical Society, 1982. Print.


Mills and MacPherson Mines

In 1921, Donald Alexander MacPherson came to Alberta from Ontario. His wife, Sara Jane, and children accompanied him. They were: Elise, George, Archie, Sandy, Annabell, Norman, and Harold. The family first went to Daysland and then to Rosalind. Harold, who was six when the family came out, married Mary Fontaine in 1936. Norman farmed for a while but then began working in the coal mines. Norman began working in the J.J. Mills Mine near Rosalind; however, in 1940 J.J. Mills moved to the Heisler district to take over the Carlson Mine. By that time, Norman and Mary had a daughter named Faye. Norman hired Ed Pizzy to move the family and their belongings to a new, but very cold log house called “The Cheshire House”, after the miners who built it.

The old J.J. Mills Mine either ran out of usable coal or got too deep to continue digging safely and was abandoned. A new mine, on the quarter to the East, began in its place. The family moved their household to this location, this time with a second daughter, Judy.

In 1947, Norman decided to try mining on his own and went to Edmonton to write for his Underground Coal Miner’s Certificate. After succeeding with this, he opened the Black Jade Mine in the spring of 1948 in partnership with Jim Schatz until Jim left mining and was replaced by Delmond Kroetsch. Following the opening of the Forestburg Collieries strip-mining operation, Black Jade struggled and would close after the winter of 1952/1953.

Norman and Mary took up farming for a time, then ran a cafe for one year, and then went to work for Stettler County as chief cook and serviceman. In 1963, they were able to begin the same sort of work with Flagstaff County and could spend more time closer to home. In 1973, the pair moved to Sedgewick and in 1980 they retired.

Their daughter, Faye Campbell, remembers, in the early years living on the mine, having to haul the coal from the mine to their home by hand. It was one mile to the house with on a steep slope. The chore was hard work before the family got coal cars on the property.

Faye also says tells two other stories of their family’s time mining. First, is about the time her father, Norman, decided to get get his Miner’s Certificate. Faye had been saving up her nickles and dimes that she got as an allowance and for doing odd-jobs in the hopes of using her savings for something big one day. She kept her nest egg in a tin can in the house; she had amassed quite the fortune for someone of her age. However, when her father needed to write the Miner’s exam, he borrowed all of $15 from Faye. This ended up being the majority of the savings in the tin; Faye jokes that to this day she does not know if her father ever paid her back. A second story of note as told by Faye concerns the matriarch of a neighbouring coal mine, the Carlson’s coal mine. This nearby mine supplemented their income by making and storing moonshine down in the coal mine. Often, the R.C.M.P. would come by to try and catch the rum-runners in action. It was said that Mrs. Carlson would often save the day and keep up the ruse by sitting on the barrel of hooch that was kept above ground. Mrs. Carlson would be cooking dinner over an open fire when the R.C.M.P. arrived and would cover the entire barrel with portions of her skirt. In this way, the R.C.M.P. would not be able to find any above-ground stores since the rest of it was kept deep in the mine or buried in the hillside nearby.

The MacPherson’s youngest daughter, Judy, remembers attending Greenock School with many of the other miners’ children; however, she also attended Heisler, Forestburg, Killam, and Bashaw schools after Greenock closed in 1952.

No Present Day Photos of Mine

MacPherson Mine

Campbell, Faye. “MacPherson, Norman and Mary.” Wagon Trails in the Sod: A History              of Heisler and Area. 1st ed. Heisler: Heisler Historical Society, 1982. Print.


Strickland Mine

Thomas and Agnes Strickland came to Canada from Scotland in 1904 with their two daughters Ellen, 3-years-old, and Annie, nine months old. Their third daughter was born in Nova Scotia, where the family settled upon entry to the country. Thomas found work as a coal miner in Bridgeport, Cape Breton but found that the working conditions were worse than what he had left in Scotland. In 1909, the family decided to move to Alberta. Thomas’ first job was prospecting for coal in the foothills. There were no roads or railways at the time and he had to travel on horseback, with two guides to show the way. He found coal in the Alberta Coal Branch but his next job was to dig a tunnel into the riverbank. This mine would become the “Black Diamond Coal Mine”.

In June 1944, the Stricklands and their son-in-law, Stephen Dolanz, and Stephen’s brother, Iggie, formed a partnership and the Fred Meek coal mine. They operated that mine until 1949 when they moved all equipment to another site to the South. This new mine was called the Palace Coal Mine and they operated it until 1957.  Thomas and Anges had retired to Daysland by this time (1954). After the mine closed, Stephen and Iggie moved to Edmonton.

Historical Photos at Strickland Mines

Paperwork from the Strickland Mines

Meeks Mine

Present Day Photos

Pano 1

This frame shows the entirety of the slack pile.

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This frame shows the collapsed tipple.

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This frame shows the collapsed tipple from the other side.

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This frame was taken on top of the tipple looking towards the collapsed mine shaft.

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This frame shows an old coal car inside the mine shaft entryway. The ground here is very wet.

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The old coal car.

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Another piece of equipment left over from the mine.

Palace Coal Mine

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This diagram shows the shape of the Palace Coal Mine.

Present Day Photos

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This frame shows the coal mine from afar. You can barely see the remnants of the mine. The slack pile is in the left side of this frame.

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This frame shows the slack pile at the Palace Coal Mine.

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The mine shaft would have gone into this side of the hill.

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This frame shows the remnants of one of the wooden supports for the tipple or coal cart track.

Strickland Mine

Dolanz, Stephen and Annie. “Strickland, Thomas and Anges,”  Wagon Trails in the Sod:        A History of Heisler and Area. 1st ed. Heisler: Heisler Historical Society, 1982. Print.


Tyrlik Mine

Michael and Margaret, also known as Peggy, Tyrlik were married on November 18, 1947. Michael and his brother, Joe, operated an underground mine. The brothers had been working as miners for a long time, like their father before them. The ceiling in the mine was only about five feet high, which meant that work had to be done bent over at the waist. The mining was extremely difficult and the pair had to do most of it by hand. They spent most of the working day below ground and rarely saw the sun in the wintertime.

In 1948, Michael and Joe purchased an electric coal-cutter, which was a huge advancement for such a primitive outfit. It saved them many hours of standing hunched over trying to form an undercut in the layers. One time, the men had still not arrived home to Margaret after nightfall. They finally turned up at two o’clock in the morning. They had been trying to save their coal-cutter from a cave-in.

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This frame shows the slack pile at the Tyrlik mine.

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This frame shows an old gear for a piece of equipment on the mine. Like many of the old mine sites, pieces of metal, glass, and rubber scatter the site.

Tyrlik Mine 1Tyrlik Mine 2

Peggy. “Tyrlik, Michael and Margaret”  Wagon Trails in the Sod: A History of Heisler                      and Area. 1st ed. Heisler: Heisler Historical Society, 1982. Print.

Location

The mines written about in this profile are located in the pictured vicinity.

Area Map

Additional History on the Properties

Alberta Energy Regulator’s Operating and Abandoned Coal Mines in Alberta

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Treaty Hill/Flagstaff Hill

There is a hill in Township 041, Range 11, W4 which has in the past been home to various First Nations peoples, a bypass on the route of many frontier expeditions, a marker for the surveying of Canada, the home of prairie settlers, and a window to the past for many historians. This hill is referred to as “Treaty Hill” or “Flagstaff Hill”.


On Tuesday, July 6th, 1858, the Palliser Expedition decided to cross the Battle River in order to avoid a more tedious trek across the land on the South side of the river, as per their guide’s recommendation. The Palliser party followed their guide’s advice and set a course for the river valley. At this time, they were North of the Neutral Hills, East of the Battle River, and South of Hardisty, Alberta. At 6 pm on July 7th, the Expedition “arrived at the site of a great medicine lodge of the Blackfeet (likely the Kaiani, or Blood,), where [they] could see the Battle River at a distance of only two miles.” (1). There was a “great ceremony at these lodges.” (1). Later that evening the Expedition would cross the Battle River at a crossing seeming to be 4 or 5 miles south-southwest of Hardisty, where the river’s course changes from north-northwest to north-northeast. The group would camp for the night on the West side of the river near a lake and then wake the next morning to continue travel westward.

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On Thursday, July 8th, 1858, the Palliser expedition ascended a “steep and sheltered bank of the (Battle) river, above a valley of the richest vegetation” and “returned westward at a distance of 10 miles from the river, and reached the base of a very conspicuous landmark, called by the Crees Hisliwaornis Kahkohtake, or the flag-hanging hill.” (1). This hill is what locals today call “Treaty Hill” or “Flagstaff Hill”.

The translation and notation of the hill’s name from Cree as told by the Palliser Expedition is disputed. In Cree, “flag” could be translated as “ukota’son, kiskewāhon, or uyumehāwākin” and “flagstaff” might be “mistikὁkan, kiskewāhonàtik, or wāpasichikunàtik” (2). “Hanging” may be translated as “ukotāwin” (2). “Hill” is best translated to “wuche’ ” (2).

2001 Indian Place Names of the West - Flagstaff Hill2

Fromhold, Joachim. 2001 Indian Place Names of the West – Part 1. 1st ed. Blackfalls:                   Lulu, 2010. Print


Palliser noted that “the Flag-hanging Hill commands an extensive view of the undulating country, with patches of poplar and small lakes. The Surcee tribe of Indians use it as a place of assembly, and it is very rarely deserted by that people. Although we did not meet any Surcees in passing the hill, we were assured that they were somewhere in the neighbourhood, as found a dead buffalo cow, yet quite warm, with an arrow through the heart. The Sucrees have been for many years allies of the Blackfeet, but were originally of the stock of the Beaver Indians, a tribe inhabiting that portion of land which lies immediately t the north of Lesser Slave Lake. Although they frequently tent among the Blackfeet, yet the latter tribe do not speak their guttural language, while every Surcee speaks fluently the Blackfoot tongue, in spite of its great dissimilarity to their own.” (1). The Sarcee language belongs to the Athabaskan language family, which also includes Navajo and Chiricahua of the South and Dene Suline (Chipewyan) and of the North.

The Surcee nation now resides adjacent to the southwestern city limits of Calgary, Alberta. The word “Sarcee” is believed to have come from a Siksika or Blackfoot, word meaning boldness and hardiness. The Sarcee people present-day call themselves Tsuut’ina or Tsuu T’ina, which translates to “many people” or “every one (in the Nation)”. The Tsuut’ina people signed Treaty 7 in 1877 and not Treaty 6 and so their emigration from the Treaty Hill area must have occurred in the 15-20 years between Palliser’s Expedition and the signing of Treaty 6 in the Flagstaff Region.

The 1872 book chronicling William Francis Butler’s trek from Fort Garry to Rocky Mountain House and back mentions the hill. The map in Butler’s book The Great Lone Land refers to the hill as “Flag Hill” (3). After participating in the events of 1870 at Red River, Butler was sent on a special mission across the prairies to report on the smallpox epidemic.

Bishop John McDougall’s book mentions “Flag Hill” during 1870 in his book In the Days of the Red River Rebellion (4).

The name “Flagstaff Hill” appears on J.B. Tyrell’s 1887 Geological Map of Part of Northern Alberta and Portions of the Districts of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, North West Territory (5). The map also sets the height of the hill as greater than 2500 feet, or 752 meters, above sea level.

It is said that by 1887 the hill would have had a second name, “Treaty Hill”. This name came to be used following an event that took place on the hill on July 3rd, 1872. It is believed that Bishop Vital Grandin helped bring about a peace between the Crees and the Sacrees, Blackfoot, and Blood (6). John Kerr mentions, “a recent truce between the Blackfeet and the Crees.” in his 1872 account of a Blackfoot-Cree wedding (7). This name became so strong in the area that when a school district was organized in the vicinity it was called “Treaty Hill No. 4056” (8). Additionally, a “Flagstaff No. 3505” school district had earlier been organized further to the West of the hill.

The letter from Bishop Vital Grandin (6) that was proposed to mention this treaty tell a slightly different tale. It goes, “Le 9 juin était le deuxieme dimanche que nous passions en voyage; nous etions campes a une place que les sauvages appellent la butte du Pavillion.”/”June 9th was the second Sunday that we spent on a trip; we were encamped at a place which the savages call the Flagstaff.”

“Je m’informe de l’origine de ce nom et on me dit qu’autrefois un gran chef Pied-Noir était mort sur cette butte et y avait eté enterreé. que ses compatriotes. aprés avoir immolé une vingtaine de chevaux sur sa tombe, avant de s’en éloigner avaient elevé une espéce de monument surmounté d’un pavillon que l’on a vu longtemps et que l’on voyait de loin. De tout cela auhoird’hui il ne reste plus que le souvenir et le nom de la dite place.”/”I inquired as to the origin of this name, and I am told that formerly a great Pied-Noir chief had died on this hillock and had been buried there. than his compatriots. after having sacrificed some twenty horses on his tomb, before departing from it, had raised a species of monument surmounted by a pavilion, which had been seen for a long time, and which could be seen from afar. Of all this today, there remains only the memory and the name of the said place.”

A past resident of the area, Eleda Cameron Lowther (born January 14th, 1912), remembers when being quite young when a flagpole still stood on top of the hill. Eleda is the mother of one of the current owners of the Treaty Hill land; Fay Davidson.

The Geodetric Survey in Canada used Flagstaff hill as a reference point. As such, the hill has three cement cairns on the top of it. Please see below for pictures of these.

These cairns are not the only structures on this property. Treaty Hill/Flagstaff Hill is home to these Geodetic Survey markers, outbuildings and a barn, and a homestead home.

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This frame shows the peak of the hill. This frame was taken whilst standing on the West-Southwest side of the hill looking East-Northeast

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This frame shows one of the three markers used by the Geodetic Survey. This frame was taken whilst looking North-East

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This same marker is one of the easiest markers to find as it is in an area sparse of trees. This frame was taken whilst looking North.

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This frame shows a close-up of the cement that makes up the marker.

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This frame shows a close-up of the metal marker set into the concrete.

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This frame is a close-up of another concrete marker on the hill. This marker lies to the North-West of the first marker shown.

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This frame shows a close up of the metal marker set into the concrete.

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This frame shows one of the more concealed markers. This marker is positioned South-West of the first marker.

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This frame shows the third marker.

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This frame shows a close-up of the third marker’s concrete.

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This frame shows the metal marker set into the concrete on the third geodetic survey point.

Panoramas Taken From the Top of the Hill

Pano 1Pano 2

Flagstaff Trail Map

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Letter From Allen Ronaghan to Glen Miller About Treaty Hill

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Ronaghan, Allen Letter 1Ronaghan, Allen Letter 2Ronaghan, Allen Letter 3Ronaghan, Allen Letter 4

Papers of the Palliser Expedition

1. Palliser, John and Spry, Irene M. The Papers of the Palliser Expedition, 1857-1860. 1st               ed. Toronto: Champlain Society, 1968. Print

“A Dictionary of Cree Language”

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Cree Dictionary 10 - Mistikokan

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Cree Dictionary 3 - Hill

2. Watkins, Edwin Arthur. A Dictionary of the Cree Language. 1st ed. London: Society                 for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1865. Print

Additional Language Reference

Alberta History, West Central Alberta, 13,000 years

Fromhold, Joachim. Alberta History: West Central Alberta – 13,000 Years of Indian                       History Pt. 1: to 1750. 1st ed. Blackfalls: Lulu, 2013. Print.

Map from “The Great Lone Land”

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Close-Up of Map

Great Lone Land

3. Buttler, William Francis. The Great Lone Land: A Narrative of Travel and Adventure           in the North-West of America. Reprint. Edmonton: M.G. Hurtig Ltd, 1968. Print.

“In the Days of the Red River Rebellion”

4. McDougall, John and Jackel, Susan. In the Days of the Red River Rebellion. 1st ed.                                 Edmonton: The University of Alberta Press, 1983. Print

“Geological Map of Part of Northern Alberta and Portions of the Districts of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, North West Territory”

1887 Map.31887 Map.2

5. Tyrrell, Joseph Burr. Geological Map of Part of Northern Alberta and Portions of the               Districts of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, North West Territory. 1st ed. Ottawa:                  The Geological Survey of Canada, 1887. Print.

Bishop Vital Grandin Letter to His Family

6. Grandin, Bishop Vital. Personal communication via letter. August 1872. Letter                         via Oblate Province of Alberta-Saskatchewan fonds, Provincial Archive of                         Alberta, PR1984.0400/1025

French Passage With English Translation Beside

Le lendemain de notre depart nous arrivames a une riviére, ordinairement fort aisée a traverser, mais alors trés profonds et passablement débordee . Les sauvagges la traversérent cependant et en assez peu de temps, les uns a la nage, les autres en radeu; efin chacun trouval le moyen de passer et je ne restai pas plus que les autres de l’autre cote. Quinze jours avant la riviére etait encore bien plus haute. Une pauve sauvahesse partit de Saint-Paul pour aller rejoindre sa famille assez loin de l’autre cote de cette riviére.

. . . . .

Le 9 juin était le deuxieme dimanche que nous passions en voyage; nous etions campes a une place que les sauvages appellent la butte du Pavillion. Je m’informe de l’origine de ce nom et on me dit qu’autrefois un gran chef Pied-Noir était mort sur cette butte et y avait eté enterreé. que ses compatriotes. aprés avoir immolé une vingtaine de chevaux sur sa tombe, avant de s’en éloigner avaient elevé une espéce de monument surmounté d’un pavillon que l’on a vu longtemps et que l’on voyait de loin. De tout cela auhoird’hui il ne reste plus que le souvenir et le nom de la dite place. Ce jou-la j’avais prepare a la communion les quelques chrétiens déja confirmés au nombre de 18 seulement. J’aurais aimé a officer avec une certaine solennité; mais a peine avais-je commencé la grand’messe que la pluie tomba a verse. and part quatre ou cinq chrétiens qui pouvaient etre dans la tente acec moi, tous requrent la pluie sur leurs épaules et ne se retiréent cependant qu’aprés la messe finie lorsqu’ils furent avertis que l’instruction serait remise a plus tard.

The day after our departure we arrived at a river, usually very easy to cross, but then very deep and quite overflowing. The savages crossed it, however, and in a short time, some swimming, others radiant; and each one found a way to pass, and I did not remain more than the others on the other side. Fifteen days before the river was still much higher. A pauve savahess left St. Paul to join his family far enough on the other side of this river.

 

. . . . .

June 9th was the second Sunday that we spent on a trip; we were encamped at a place which the savages call the Flagstaff. I inquired as to the origin of this name, and I am told that formerly a great Pied-Noir chief had died on this hillock and had been buried there. than his compatriots. after having sacrificed some twenty horses on his tomb, before departing from it, had raised a species of monument surmounted by a pavilion, which had been seen for a long time, and which could be seen from afar. Of all this today, there remains only the memory and the name of the said place. That day I had prepared for communion the few Christians already confirmed to the number of only 18. I would have liked an officer with a certain solemnity; but scarcely had I begun the High Mass than the rain fell to the ground. and leaves four or five Christians who could be in the tent with me, all of them rain on their shoulders and do not withdraw but after the finished mass when they were warned that the instruction would be postponed.

“John Kerr”

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7. Sissons, Constance Kerr. John Kerr. 1st ed. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1946.                  Print. 

Treaty Hill School Division

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8. “Treaty Hill District”. In the Bend of the Battle: A History of Alliance and District. 1st                ed. Edmonton: Douglas Printing, 1976. Print.

St. Peter’s Roman Catholic Church

History

bell-tower-e1533832167875.jpgSt. Peter’s Roman Catholic church began out of necessity. Many of the parish’s members had to travel 15 to 20 miles between 1907-1909 to attend Spring Lake church, before St. Peter’s parish was build. In 1909, the first nave and sanctuary were built. In 1916, a tower was added at the end of the nave to house the church’s bell. This construction was completed by Joseph Schulte.

On October 22nd, 1911, the plot was laid for the cemetery. On March 1st, 1925, a meeting was held which began talks on the building of a new church as it became apparent that the current one was too small. On February 12th, 1927, Rev. M.J. Schnitzler of St. Peter’s parish received a letter from the Archbishop of Edmonton giving permission for the new church to be built.

schares-e1533830953466.jpgBarney Schares was hired as foreman. Mike Schares oversaw the interior furnishings. Both men were from the Wanda district. Mass was held in the basement of the church while it was being constructed. The new church was frame construction and built to Modern Gothlic style. It had “a Cathedral-like front bordered on either side by partly projecting twin towers of octagonal spires. The large front platform, including the dozen wide steps, is of cement. The whole frame structure rests on a full-size concrete basement five feet above the surface. The main body of the church is 70 x 38 feet. The towers measure 10 x 10 feet. The sanctuary is 24 x 20 feet, with a semi-octagonal rear. The sacristy, 16 x 20 feet, is on the South side of and adjacent to the sanctuary. The interior has no columns to mar the vision. There is a double flight gallery, the upper is enclosed by a paneled railing for the choir and the lower affords seating space. The lower front of the gallery is closed in and is a nicely paneled apse. All the ceilings and walls are plastered. All the window and door frames are trimmed by three three wedge keys. The sanctuary has a raised floor of two steps, all green carpet (red presently). A beautiful marble imitation Communion railing adorns the lower step. In the sanctuary, another three steps mount to the main altar which is of a rich Gothic in Regalice. The front of the mensa (the altar’s table top) bears the scene of the Last Supper. The mensa and the baldachin over the tabernacle are supported by marble pillars. The church is well built throughout and pleasantly painted.” (taken from The Western Catholic, dated August 18th, 1927, see St. Peter’s Church “Through the Years” 1909-1976 for more).

The church is significant for its Romanesque Revival architectural design. This is visible in its rounded arch windows with tracery, the rose window at the nave end, the arched coloured glass transom, the niche with statue, and the matching towers with steeples. Features of note of this style inside the church include: the vaulted ceiling, the semi-circular apse, the trim on the windows, doors and baseboards, the arcaded alter rails, and the wood-finished balcony.

Sunday, August 8th, 1927 was an eventful day for parishoners of St. Peter’s. Over one thousands people gathered from across the region to witness the blessing of the new church. The blessing was completed by His Grace Henry Joseph O’Leary, Archbishop of Edmonton.

For many years, it was customary for the women, children, and girls to site on the left side of the aisle while the men and boys sat on the right. The young bachelors in the parish were seated in the gallery. This changed for a time when Father Schnitzler rented the pews to families for $1.00/small pew and $2.00/large pew.

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In 1975, the church was shingled with asphalt shingles by Rose City Builders Ltd. In the same year, a lightning strike hit the North bell tower. In 1976, many repairs where completed including cement work, sheeting inside the furnace room, installation of wall paneling and fire extinguishers, and improved lighting. A natural gas furnance was installed in 1986. In 1988, the church received Historical Resource Designation from the Province of Alberta. Cedar shingles were put back on in 1991. In 1999, the exterior of the church was painted. In 2009, wrought iron fencing was installed around eastern the cemetery. In 2012, the remainder of the wrought iron fencing was installed along the northern side of the cemetery. The church was also designated a Municipal Historic Resource with Flagstaff County in this year. In 2015, the entirety of the church’s exterior was painted white.

Catholic Women’s League. St. Peter’s Church “Through the Years” 1909-1976. 1st ed.                         Sedgewick, The Community Press, 1976. Print.

Giedemann, Louise. Personal communication. 26 Jul 2018.


Present Day Photographs of the Church and the Cemtery

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This frame shows the eastern face and southern side of the church.

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This frame shows the southern side of the church. Note the six over nine paned windows and the rounded arch windows with tracery and coloured glass.

 

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This frame shows some of these oldest graves in the cemetery. These are positioned in the south-western corner of the cemetery. Many of these graves are in this area because of Catholic rules determining where unbaptized children and suicidal deaths may be placed.

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This frame shows a memorial in the middle of the main cemetery.

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This frame shows the southern side of the church.

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This frame shows the southern and western sides of the two spires on the eastern side of the church. Each tower has a belfry and an octagonal steeple.  Note the gable parapets on each side of each tower.

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This frame shows the southern side and western end of the church.

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This frame is a close-up of the door leading out of the kitchen in the basement of the church.

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This frame shows the western end and part of the northern side of the church.

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This frame shows the western end and northern side of the church.

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This frame shows the northern side of the church. Note the six buttresses which protrude from the northern side of the church’s basement.

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This frame shows the northern side and eastern face of the church. Crosses atop metal balls on each steeple.

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This frame shows the eastern face of the church. Note the statue inside the niche above the coloured glass rose window.

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This frame shows the church’s eastern entry-way. Note the double font doors with arched coloured glass transom window.

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This frame shows the first room off of the eastern entry way. This room is in the north-eastern corner of the church.

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This frame shows inside of the north-eastern room.

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This frame shows the staircase to the upper balcony and to the basement in the south-eastern corner of the church.

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This frame shows the pews inside the nave of the church. Note the apse in the western face of the church (paint blue in this frame). In this church, the chancel (or part of the church near the altar) is carpeted.

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This frame shows the altar from the east. Note parts of the red carpet.

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This frame shows the altar from the south-east.

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This frame shows a bell at the entry to the church’s sacristy. This door is on the south side of the church (as norms dictate) and is also called the priest’s door.

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This frame shows the inside of the sacristy.

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This frame shows one of the church’s many antiques. This is an offering stand for votive candles.

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This frame shows the nave and altar from the gallery section of the church.

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This frame shows the seating in the balcony of the church.

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This frame shows the basement of the church.

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This frame shows the provincial seal designating the church as a Registered Historic Resource.

Location

52.697146, -112.084726                                        NE 10-43-15 W4

Characteristics

Structure Condition: Good

Construction Date: 1927 with features from circa 1916 and 1909 church buildings

Features: Two spires, two bells, crosses atop metal balls on each steeple, sacristy on southern side of church which used to be the original church’s nave, six over nine paned windows, rounded arch windows with tracery and coloured glass, six buttresses which protrude from the side of the church’s basement, gable parapets on each side of each tower, statue inside the niche above the coloured glass rose window above eastern entrance, double font doors with arched coloured glass transom window

Roof Shape: Gable

Paint: White

Decorations: Stain glass windows

Roof Covering: Wooden shingles

Siding: Wooden clapboard with corner boards

Foundation: Cement

Additional History on the Property

St. Peter’s Church “Through the Years” 1909-1976

Catholic Women’s League. St. Peter’s Church “Through the Years” 1909-1976. 1st ed.                       Sedgewick, The Community Press, 1976. Print.

St. Peter’s School District History from Heisler History Book

“St. Peter’s School District”. Wagon Trails in the Sod: A History of Heisler and Area. 1st                    ed. Heisler: Heisler Historical Society, 1982. Print.

Giedemann, John

Giedemann, Leona (Lenhart). “Giedemann, John”. Wagon Trails in the Sod: A History                     of Heisler and Area. 1st ed. Heisler: Heisler Historical Society, 1982. Print.

St. Peter’s Church History from Strome History Book

“St. Peter’s Church”. Lanterns on the Prairie: Strome Diamond Jubilee 1905-19801st                    ed. Strome: Strome Senior Citizens Club, 1980. Print.

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Treaty Hill/Flagstaff Hill: Daly Barns

History

The section of land this barn and these outbuildings are built on was a C.P.R. quarter.  Please click here and see Page 12 and here to learn more about C.P.R. Ready Made farms. It is believed that this property was first owned by Colonel Patrick J. Daly, CMG DSO, and Alice Ann (nee Knight) Daly, RRC.

Daly Picture

Patrick Joseph Daly was born in Dublin, Ireland on April 29th, 1872. He moved with his family to Australia in 1877, at the age of 5-years-old. He was the son of James Daly; later of Alstonville, Richmond River, New South Wales. He worked as a carpenter until the age of 29, when he set off to South Africa to serve in the Second Boer War. Patrick was a young cavalryman, a lancer, who served with the West Australia contingent (6th Western Australia Mounted Infantry) from 1901 to 1902. Patrick Daly departed from Fremantle, Western Australia on board the SS Ulstermore (click here for images) on April 10th, 1901 and arrived in Durban, South Africa on April 29th, 1901. He was promoted to Corporal from Private some time in 1901. From there he was “promoted to Sergeant by the Commander-in-Chief” Herbert Kitchener; 1st Earl Kitchener, “for gallant service done on three occasions with scouts, when parties of Boers were taken”. He advanced from Sergeant to Lieutenant on January 18th, 1902 for work done while present in operations within the Transvaal Colony and the Orange River Colony.

Patrick Daly was then severely wounded at Roodepoort, South Africa on February 26th, 1902; he was shot seven times; including once in each wrist and several times in his thigh and calf. He was mentioned five times in Commander-in-Chief Despatches for his “services during the operations in South Africa” (London Gazette, 31 October 1902). He was nominated for the Victoria Cross and was awarded the D.S.O. (Distinguished Service Order) for, “rescuing a fellow solider under fire.” Patrick Daly was admitted to a Pretoria Hospital in February 1902 to treat his injuries. It was there that he met Miss Alice Knight, a highly esteemed nurse. Much like a Hollywood movie, the soldier fell in love with his nurse.

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Distinguished Service Order during Second Boer War. Retrieved from https://www.angloboerwar.com/images/multithumb_thumbs/f5fe063094a808f41197e112657cd1b2.jpg

Alice Knight, born in England, joined the nursing sisters of the British Army, the Royal Army Medical Corps, when she was 19 years old. After a few years of service, she was sent into a ranging war in South Africa in late 1901. The battle at Ladysmith, South Africa during the Second Boer War concluded with an excruciating four month period, where ever-increasing cases of enteric fever ran rampant and resources were precariously low. Alice was present throughout the entirety of this siege of Ladysmith. The town was besieged for 118 days and, towards the end of the struggle, city residents were living off of their working animals, oxen and horses. After securing Ladysmith, a retreat of the Boer troops in March of 1900 caused the British Army to advance onward to the North, pushing the Boer forces back. The more northerly city of Pretoria was surrendered to British forces on June 5th, 1900. The Second Boer War ended in Pretoria with the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on May 31st, 1902. Alice was recognized in a London Gazette Despatch on Tuesday, June 17th, 1902 as a civilian nurse for “care of prisoners of war in Pretoria”. She would also receive the decoration of the Royal Red Cross, along with six other nurses, for “care of prisoners of war in Pretoria“. This award was administered on the 26th of June, 1902 for service in South Africa in the year 1902. Alice moved with the British forces to Pretoria to serve in the No. 22 General Hospital, formerly the Imperial Yeomanry Branch Hospital in Pretoria, where she would meet Patrick Daly.

Royal Red Cross

Royal Red Cross pre-1938. Retrieved from https://collection.nam.ac.uk/detail.php?acc=1963-10-54-3

On May 28th, 1902, she would tend to a young cavalryman who had been subject to seven rifle shots. As stated earlier, the pair fell in love. The war was almost over and Alice was sent back to England only to secure her discharge and return to Capetown, South Africa; where she would wed Patrick Daly on March 17th, 1903.

Patrick Daly ran government farms after the Boer War; he would scout land and was commissioned to raise horses in Transvaal for the government. The Dalys spent 1903-1910 in South Africa before moving to England. It was there, on September 30th, 1910, their only daughter Eileen was born.

The family would move to Calgary, Alberta, Canada late in the year 1910. The pair owned a home at 711 12th Avenue West, Calgary, a two-minute walk from Beaulieu, or Lougheed House, and The Ranchmens Club. Interestingly enough, Patrick Daly would actually have his medals, received while in service with the Canadian Expeditionary Force, sent to the Club while he and Alice were away during World War I.

While in Calgary, Patrick Daly began a partnership with Pat Burns, one of the Big Four; or founding members of the Calgary Stampede. Patrick and Alice Daly were very active in the Calgary community; it is believed that the Daly’s lawyer was The Right Honourable R.B. Bennett while he was in practice with Sir James Alexander Lougheed. Colonel Daly worked as a CPR land agent and would often assess land on their behalf; however, he would also help raise cattle on Burns’ ranches. It is also of note that the Dalys bought and sold land at the time and that Alice Daly had title on some of that land. This may have made her one of the first women to own property in the region. The Daly family owned two farms at this time; one in Strathmore, Alberta and one in Lougheed, Alberta; named after Sir James Alexander Lougheed. It is known that the land the Dalys lived on South of Lougheed was a CPR quarter.

With the outbreak of World War I on August 14th, 1914, both Dalys met the call again and volunteered to serve in the war effort. Patrick began recruiting for the Canadian Expeditionary Force soon after war broke out. Then, in November of 1914, he joined the 31st Battalion, CEF at Calgary. Both he and Alice would see service in France but Alice would actually see battle long before her husband would.

Meanwhile, Alice Daly recruited for the Canadian Expeditionary Force in Calgary. In August 1914, she was tasked with recruiting nineteen nurses and filled her quota within the day. She then volunteered to serve as a nurse overseas and headed for New York. Upon arriving there, she was told it would be four or five weeks before she and her counterpart, Mrs. L’Amy of Calgary, would be able to cross the Atlantic Ocean for Europe. However, the pair did not end up waiting anywhere near that long. Rumors of submarine attacks on passenger ships caused widespread ticket cancellations to pour into the steamship offices. As such, Mrs. Daly and Mrs. L’Amy were able to set sail for France on September 20th, 1914. Mrs. L’Amy’s husband, Lieutenant J.H. L’Amy, actually served alongside Colonel Patrick Daly while in the 31st Battalion.

Alice would arrive a year before her husband, as the 6th Canadian Brigade of the 2nd Canadian Division did not land until October and November of 1915. She rented an apartment on the outskirts of London, England and setup shop there. During 1917 and 1918, Alice was proposed to have been stationed at Lady Astor’s Red Cross hospital, called the HRH Duchess of Connaught Hospital, close to Taplow, Buckinghamshire, England. When Colonel Daly arrived in Europe, she volunteered for service in France to be closer to him. Alice Daly was highly respected due to her service history and was posted closer to the action. It was said that while serving in France, a Big Bertha shell, fired from seventy miles away, went through the roof of her apartment building. She was lucky that she was away on duty and only had to experience the aftermath of the impact.

Patrick Daly served in World War I from 1914 to 1919, rising to the rank of Full Colonel. On March 24th, 1917, Patrick Daly would receive the Order of St. Michael and St. George (CMG) (No. 2944).

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Order of St. Michael and St. George C.M.G. Retrieved from https://www.emedals.com/order-of-st-michael-and-st-george-c-m-g-gb1151

In 1918, Patrick Daly would command the 27th Battalion (City of Winnipeg), CEF and be given the rank of full Colonel. The 27th was part of the 2nd Division6th Infantry Brigade; along with its sisters 28th Battalion (Northwest), CEF 29th Battalion (Vancouver), CEF; and 31st Battalion (Alberta), CEF). He would be placed on duty at Le Havre, Normandy, France and remain in France until after the Armistice.

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A German 8 inch Howitzer captured on Vimy Ridge by 27th Battalion, which Patrick Daly commanded.

 

After the Armistice of 1918, the Dalys would return to Alberta but would only stay in Calgary until 1919. At which point, the Dalys sold their farm in Strathmore and moved to their farm in the Treaty Hill District, South of Lougheed, Alberta and East of Alliance, Alberta. On May 14th, 1919 he would have the following medical examination completed:

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Alice Daly would pass away in August of 1930 from pneumonia contracted after a surgery for another illness. While in the Lougheed area, she was a staple. The town and district residents required her services whenever injured. Her loss was mourned greatly by the community. Many said that it took great knowledge, technical skill, tender hands, and a giving heart to help as she did.

Col. Patrick Daly would pass away on February 12th, 1931 at 59 years old after an operation for appendicitis. He was taken to St. Anne’s Hospital in Hardisty on February 8th but complications took him in a couple of days. A military funeral was held in the Lougheed Roman Catholic Church. His horse, with an empty saddle having on top boots and spurs reversed, was led by Sergent A. Skyes behind the hearse.

You can access Colonel Patrick Daly’s service record here.

Daly Funeral 9Daly Funeral 7Daly Funeral 8

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Clark, Robert. Personal communication. 15 Aug. 2018.

Present Day Barn Photos

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This frame shows the norther face and eastern side of an outbuilding on the farm.

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This frame shows the eastern side and southern face of the outbuilding.

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This frame shows the southern face and western side of the outbuilding.

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This frame shows the western side of the chicken coop in the yard.

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This frame shows the southern side of the chicken coop. There are lots of windows on the southern side to let light into the building.

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This frame shows the northern side and western side of the barn.

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This frame shows an entryway on the western side of the barn.

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This frame shows the cement and field stone foundation that supports that barn.

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This frame shows the western side and southern side of the barn.

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This frame shows the southern side and eastern side of the barn. The barn is leaning badly and has fallen off the foundation.

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This frame shows the eastern side of the barn.

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This frame shows the ground floor barn door on the southern side of the barn.

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This frame shows the inside of the barn facing the north-western corner

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This frame shows the chop bin in the north-western corner of the barn.

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This frame shows a painted notation in the north-western corner of the barn.

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A close-up of the writing shows, “LH April 20 1930”.

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This frame shows what the stalls and mangers would have looked like inside the barn. Only one remains, on the southern half of the barn.

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This frame shows the stone foundation on the southern end of the barn. Note that the foundation heads off to the West as if there used to be more barn that way. If it would have, the barn may have been a gable-roofed barn.

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This frame shows the train of buried concrete heading West from the western side of the barn.

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This frame shows an old red tractor parked in the pasture nearby the barn and house.

Location

Land Layout

Characteristics

Barn Condition: Poor

Construction Date: Unknown, pre 1930.

Features: None

Roof Shape: Shed

Paint: Red

Decorations: No names or dates on outside, “LH April 20, 1930” painted on inside

Roof Covering: Wooden shingles

Siding: Wooden drop siding

Foundation: Cement and field stone

Additional History on the Property

These barns are not the only structure on this property. Treaty Hill is home to these outbuildings and barn, Geodetic Survey markers, and a homestead house.

THE COLONEL’S LADY BY DIXON CRAIG

Daly 1Daly 2

Craig, Dixon. “The Colonel’s Lady”. As the Wheel Turns: A History of Merna and                            District. 1st ed. Sedgewick: The Community Press, 1971. Print

COLONEL PATRICK J. DALY, C.M.G., D.S.O.

Daly History 3Daly History 4

No Author. “Colonel Patrick J. Daly, C.M.G., D.S.O.”. Verdant Valleys In and Around                                Lougheed. 1st ed. Lougheed: Lougheed Women’s Institute, 1972. Print.

COL. DALY FAMILY

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Alcorn, Phyllis. “Col. Daly Family”. In the Bend of the Battle: A History of Alliance and                District. 1st ed. Alliance: Alliance Lions Club, 1976. Print.

COL. P.J. DALY

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Alcorn, Phyllis. “Col. P.J. Daly”. In the Bend of the Battle; THE NEXT GENERATION: A               History of Alliance and District. 1st ed. Edmonton: Douglas Printing, 2005. Print.